ICRA Discussion Papers

ICRA Discussion Papers

ICRA’s discussion papers are designed to raise for debate some of the issues that occur in conflict situations rather than to provide a complete analysis.

I. Back to the Land

The “back to the land” discussion paper was written by ICRA to highlight the perception that traditional means of generating income that have been damaged or destroyed by violence are often accorded low priority in development and resolution programmes.

II. Language & Conflict
This article exposes only one small part that language plays in conflict. ICRA aims to write a Discussion Paper on the broader aspects of the topic.


III. Gender & Conflict
In this paper on “gender & conflict” there is not only a précis of the normally accepted views on gender in armed conflict but a broader perspective to establish a correlation between gender issues in conflict and gender issues in a peaceful situation such as the workplace.

IV. Radicalization and De-Radicalization

This paper is organized around themes to enable understanding on how de-radicalization can be approached. The discussion is informed by the growing body of literature on the subject as well as on terrorism and radicalisation, which are integral components of the same debate.

V. Urbanization and Violence

The growing global population is moving increasingly away from the countryside to an environment in cities unnatural to many agrarian communities. This paper explores in brief some of the complexities of this topic using an example of the Kenya’s Kibera district in Nairobi.

VI. Water & Conflict

As water becomes scarce, and the demand for water increases with the global population growing, there are signs of existing water treaties between states being broken and weak responses by regional bodies in facing the challenge. Crucially, the areas most affected are those with the fastest growing and most poverty-stricken populations. This paper explores five areas of high risk of water conflict.

VII. The effects of small arms on society

This discussion paper looks at some of the effects of small arms, light and bladed weapons on society. The paper is not intended to answer questions or propose solutions, rather look at these weapons as an element in our society. As such, they can have a range of effects on people’s lives, from providing an income to causing direct or indirect costs on individuals or the society as a whole. While no specific country is at the centre of this paper, various examples from around the world will be used to support the discussion, including the US, Switzerland and Yemen.