Nagorno-Karabakh has been at the centre of a dispute between Azerbaijan and Armenia for a century, and following the collapse of the Soviet Union escalated into a full-scale war that lasted between 1992 and 1994.

The conflict is an intra-state conflict, as the Armenian population of Nagorno-Karabakh fights to have its independence recognized. It is also an inter-state conflict, as it involves two sovereign countries, Armenia and Azerbaijan, and a third party, the un-recognized ‘Republic of Nagorno-Karabakh’.

The nature of this conflict has played a significant role in shaping the geopolitical landscape of Eurasia. As a result, an opposing alliance of states emerged in and around the Caucasus. Turkey has changed and at times halted altogether its economic relations with Armenia in support of Azerbaijan. Russia, which has traditionally been Armenia’s strongest ally in the Caucasus, has warned Armenia over shifting its economic and political policies towards Western interests, a shift that would happen as Armenia’s relations with Turkey are normalised.

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